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Glossary

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A

Applique - Embroidery process that involves using cut pieces of fabric in place of large fill stitch areas. The fabric pieces are sewn into the design. The process is used to reduce stitch counts in large designs and/or to create a unique appearance. The Tajima DG/ML Software offers an Auto-Applique Tool .
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Applique Iron - Device used to fuse heat-sealable items, such as appliques, emblems and lettering, to fabric. Also known as an Tacking Iron.
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Automatic Thread Trim - An automated machine process that cuts the top and bobbin thread when directed by data stored in a design file. This function is usually used after a jump or a color change. This process eliminates the need for manual trimming.
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B

Backing - Woven and non-woven material used underneath the item or fabric being embroidered to provide support and stability. Can be hooped with the item, or placed between the machine throat plate and the hooped garment. Available in various weights and in two basic types: cutaway and tearaway. Also referred to as Stabilizer. May be referred to as Pellon, which is actually a brand name.
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Bean Stitch - A type of running stitch composed of three stitches placed back and forth between two points. Often used for outlining because it eliminates the need for repeatedly digitizing a single-ply running stitch outline. Sews much heavier than a single ply or two ply running stitch. Sews in a pattern of two stitches forward, one stich back, two stitches forward, one stich back, etc.
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Birdnesting - Collection of thread between the material being sewn and the needle plate, resembling a bird's nest. Formation of a bird's nest prevents free movement of goods and may be caused by: inadequate tensioning of the top thread; top thread not through take-up lever; top thread not following thread path correctly; or flagging of goods.
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Bitmap Images - Paint and image-editing software such as Corel Photo-Paint and Adobe PhotoShop generate bitmap images, also called raster images. Each pixel in a bitmap image has a specific location and color value assigned to it. Bitmap images reproduce the subtle shading found in continuous-tone images, such as photographs. Bitmap images are resolution dependent. They represent a fixed number of pixels; as a result, they can lose detail and appear jagged if they are scaled on-screen. (The most common file types .bmp, .jpeg, .gif)
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Blatt Stitch - Schiffli term meaning to feed more yarn, therefore producing a long zig-zag stitch with threads laying close together. Adapted for multi-head use: See Satin Stitch.
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Bobbin - Spool or reel that holds the bobbin thread, which helps form stitches on the underside of the fabric. A stitch is formed when the upper thread and bobbin thread are joined together through the sewing process.
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Boring - A production process in which a sharp-pointed instrument punctures, or bores, the fabric. This is followed by stitches being inserted around the opening to enclose the raw edges, leaving a bordered hole or eyelet.
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Bouncing - Up and down motion of goods under action of needle, named after the motion of a waving flag. Often caused by improper framing of goods, flagging may result in poor registration, unsatisfactory stitch formation and "birdnesting". Commonly referred to as Flagging.
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Bridge Machine - Type of embroidery machine with heads suspended from a bridge or beam, allowing the pantograph a wider range of movement from front to back (Y-axis) of the machine table.
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Buckram - Coarse woven fabric, stiffened with glue, used to stabilize fabric for stitching. Commonly used in caps to hold the front panel erect.
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C

Cartoon - Enlargement of original artwork which is used in tablet digitizing as a template for finished embroidery. This artwork usually contains notes relating to stitch type, density and color order. Usually six times larger than finished design size, based on art to stitching ratio of schiffli machines. (Not used with on-screen digitizing methods.)
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Ceeding Stitch - See Fill Stitch (used interchangeably).
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Chain Stitch - (1) Stitch that looks like a chain link. A flat stitch created on a chenille machine usually used as outline to define moss (loop) areas; (2) also used to define chevron stitch used in standard embroidery.
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Chenille - Type of embroidery in which a loop stitch is formed on the topside of the fabric. Uses heavy yarns of wool, cotton or acrylic which are pulled up from reverse side of the fabric using a hook. Also known as loop piling. Created by a Chenille machine.
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Colorfast - A thread’s ability to retain its color during normal wear and laundering.
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Column Stitch - Formed by closely arranged zig-zag stitches. Often used to form borders and letters. See Satin Stitch.
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Complex Fill - A digitizing capability that allows void areas to be designated as such when mapping perimeter points, allowing digitizing of fill areas without sectioning.
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Condensed Format - Method of digitizing in which a proportionate number of stitches are placed between defined points after a scale has been designated. With a machine or computer that can read condensed format, the scale, density and stitch lengths in a design may be changed. Also referred to as Outline Format. The Condensed File Format is associated with Melco Software and is identified by the .cnd file extension. However, most commercial embroidery software programs have their own proprietary outline formats such as .pxf, .pof and .ped which are produced by the Tajima DGML Software by Pulse Microsystems.
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Copyright - A legal form of protection provided to creators of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and certain other intellectual works. It is available to both published and unpublished works. (Visit www.copyright.gov for more information about copyrights.)
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Cording - The attachment of any type of round, decorative cord. Can be achieved by adding a cording device to a machine.
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Cross Stitch - Two stitches that cross at the center to form an X. Traditionally associated with a hand process that creates pictures or images using "cross-stitches." Tajima DGML by Pulse Microsystems offers Software that allows the user to digitize cross-stitch designs that can be sewn using an embroidery machine.
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Cupping - The curling of dense designs on fabrics that are improperly stabilized. (See puckering.)
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Cylinder Arm Machine - A machine with a structure that makes it possible to embroider curved or unusually shaped articles, such as caps, sleeves and pants legs on finished garments.
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Cylindrical Frame - The cylinder frame allows sewing to take place on narrow cylindrical shaped items such as pants legs, shirt sleeves, socks, wine bags, golf club head covers, Christmas sotckings, etc. This type of frame is available for most Tajima machines. Also known as a Narrow Cylinder Frame.
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D

Denier - Unit of weight used to measure the fineness of thread. Equal to weight in grams of 9000 meters of thread. Deniers are represented by the weight of the strands of thread, a slash, and the number of strands per thread, 120/2 Den.
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Digitizing - Modern term for punching reflecting the computerized method of converting artwork into a series of commands to be read by an embroidery machine's computer. See Punching.
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Downloading - The transfer of designs/data from the Internet to a computer. The transfer of designs/data from a computer or network to a machine.
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E

Emblem - Embroidered design with a finished edge, commonly an insignia or identification, usually worn on outer clothing. Historically an emblem carried a family crest, motto or verse, or suggested a moral lesson. Also referred to as a patch.
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Embroidery - Decorative stitching on fabric. Generally involves non-lettering designs, but can also include lettering and/or monograms. Evolved from hand embroidery, to simple one-head manual sewing machines, schiffli machines with hundreds of needles, to high-speed multi-head machines. Evidence of embroidery exists during the reign of Egyptian pharaohs, in the writings of Homer, from the Crusaders to the 20th century.
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Expanded Format - Individual stitches in a design that have been specifically digitized and are fixed in place. Generally, designs digitized in this format can't be enlarged or reduced more than 10-20% without distortion because the stitch count remains constant. Also referred to as a Stitch file. Examples Tajima's .dst file format and Pulse Microsystems .psf file format. (The expanded file format was originally associated with Melco's .exp file format.)
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F

Facing - Material hooped or placed on top of items to be embroidered that have a definable nap or surface texture, such as corduroy and terry cloth. The facing compacts the wale or nap and holds the stitches above it. Includes a variety of substances such as water soluble plastic "foil", and open weave fabric which is chemically treated to disintegrate with the application of heat. Also referred to as Topping. May be referred to as Solvy which is a brand name for water soluble material manufactured by Gunold & Stickma.
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Fill Stitch - Series of parallel running stitches commonly used to cover large areas. Different fill patterns can be created by altering the angle, length, and repeat sequence of the stitches.
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Finisihing - Processes performed after embroidery is complete. Includes trimming loose threads, cutting or tearing away excess backing, removing facing, cleaning any stains, pressing if needed, and packing for sale or shipping. Sometimes referred to as Cleaning.
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Flagging - Up and down motion of goods under action of needle, named after the motion of a waving flag. Often caused by improper framing of goods, flagging may result in poor registration, unsatisfactory stitch formation and "birdnesting". Sometimes referred to as Bouncing.
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FOX Test - Method of testing thread tension and soundness of timing. Sew the word FOX in 1 inch satin block letters with each needle, then examine the reverse side for skipped stitches and correctly balanced ratio of top thread to bobbin thread. The correct balance is generally considered to be a one-third ratio of bobbin to two-thirds top thread. These letters are used because they require the movement of the pantograph in all directions, increasing the likelihood that the beginnings of timing irregularities will be discovered. May be referred to as the "THIRDS" test, since it refers to the relationship of the thread balance.
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Frame - Holding device for insertion of goods under an embroidery head for the application of embroidery. May employ a number of means for maintaining stability during the embroidery process, including clamps, vacuum devices, magnets or springs. Examples: cap frames, cylinder frames, clamping devices, border frames, etc. Though hoops are used for framing purposes, they are not considered to be frames, though the terms often are used interchangeably.
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G

Geflect - A fill pattern in which all lines of stitches are parallel to each other. It was commonly used in DOS-based digitizing systems and is rarely used today, having been replaced by the complex fill.
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Guide Stitch - A series of stitches used to line up placement of subsequent embroidery in multiple hooping situations, or assist in placement of fabric pieces for applique.
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H

Holding Fixtures - Devices used to hold or frame small or unusually shaped items, such as socks and gloves. Commonly used for delicate goods, rigid goods, gang loading applications, or to speed up the framing process to achieve production efficiency. Also see Frames.
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Hook - Holds the bobbin case in the machine and plays a vital role in stitch formation. Making two complete rotations for each stitch, its point meets a loop of top thread at a precisely timed moment and distance (gap) to form a stitch. Sometimes referred to as a bobbin hook.
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Hoop - Device made from wood, plastic or steel with which fabric is gripped tightly between an inner ring and an outer ring. It attaches to the machine's pantograph. Machine hoops are designed to push the fabric to the bottom of the inner ring and hold it against the machine bed for embroidering.
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Hoop Burn - Permanent marks that remain on a fabric after the embroidery hoop has been removed. Unlike, hoop marks, hoop burn cannot be removed. It is the result of crushed fibers caused by a hoop that is too tight.
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Hoop Mark - The temporary marks that remain on the fabric after the embroidery hoop has been removed. Also referred to as a Hoop Ring. Such marks can typically be removed using steam or Magic Sizing spray.
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Hooping Device - Device that aids in hooping garments or items for embroidery, for hooping multi-layered items and for uniformly hooping multiple items. Sometimes referred to as a Hooping Board. Tajima offers the Hoopmaster hooping device.
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I

I Test - A thread tension test in which one 1 inch capital letter I is stitched out in each of the color threads available on the machine, after which all I's are compared for consistent and correct tension. See also FOX Test and Thirds Test.
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Interlock Stitch - Two or more rows of overlapping satin stitches. The point of overlapping can be straight or curved. Also known as thread blending or random stitch.
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J

Jacquard - Joseph M. Jacquard invented of the Jacquard loom, which used a punch card to instruct the loom to weave a pattern in color. This process was later applied to punching 64mm jacquard for automated embroidery machines.
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Jump Stitch - Movement of the pantograph without needle penetration, commonly used to get from one point in a design to another. No sewing occurs during a jump stitch.
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K

Keyboard Lettering - Embroidery using letters or words created from computer software, which allows variance of letter styles, size, height, density and other characteristics.
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L

Lettering - Embroidery using letters or words. Lettering commonly called "keyboard lettering" may be created from computer software, which allows variance of letter styles, size, height, density and other characteristics.
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Lip Hooping - This technique is also known as "Recessed Hooping". It is useful when hooping bulky or slick fabrics, such as insulated jackets. The inner ring is pushed past the edge of the outer ring, so that the outer ring sticks up higher, forming a lip. This helps prevent the inner ring from being pushed up during the embroidery process, and places the goods flatter to the machine table.
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Lock Stitch - (1) This stitch is formed by three or four consecutive stitches of at least a 10 point movement. It should be used at the end of all columns, fills and any element where a trim will follow, such as color changes or the end of a design. May be stitched in a triangle or a straight line. The Tajima DGML Software allows insertion and creation od lock stitches. (2) Lock Stitch is also the name of the type of stitch formed by the hook and needle of home sewing machines, as well as computerized embroidery machines.
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Logo - Short for logotype. The name, symbol, or trademark of a company or organization.
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Looping - Threads that are raised unevenly on the surface of a stitched design. Most common cause is upper thread tension being too loose or bobbin thread tension being too tight.
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M

Manual Stitch - A stitch that has been created manually, one point at a time. With traditional stitches, the Digitizer plots a series of points to define the segment, then the computer automatically creates the necessary needle penetrations based on the designated property settings. With a Manual Stitches, each point that is plotted in a segment, defines the needle penetration. Thus, the stitches are created "manually."
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Monogram - Embroidered design composed of one or more letters, usually the initials in a name.
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N

Narrow Cylinder Frame - The cylinder frame allows sewing to take place on narrow cylindrical shaped items such as pants legs, shirt sleeves, socks, wine bags, golf club head covers, Christmas sotckings, etc. This type of frame is available for most Tajima machines. Also known as a Cylindrical Frame.
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Needle - Small, slender piece of steel with a hole for thread and a point for stitching fabric. Machine embroidery needles come in sharp-points for piercing heavy, tightly woven fabric; ball-points, which glide between the fibers of knits; and a variety of specialty points such as wedge-points, used for leather.
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Needle Up - Digitizing term, similar to jump stitch, whereby pantograph movement does not entail needle penetration.
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O

Outline Format - Method of digitizing in which a proportionate number of stitches are placed between defined points after a scale has been designated. With a machine or computer that can read condensed format, the scale, density and stitch lengths in a design may be changed. Also referred to as Condensed Format. (The Condensed File Format is associated with Melco Software and is identified by the .cnd file extension.) Examples of Outline File Formats include .pxf, .pof and .ped which are produced by the Tajima DGML Software by Pulse Microsystems.
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P

Pantograph - Holding device for frames, frame sash, and hoops which controls movement of embroidery fabric in the X-and-Y directions, to create a embroidery design while the needle remains in a stationary postion.
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Paper Tape - Continuous roll of paper or mylar tape defining x and y coordinate information through the use of punched holes. Paper Tape has been almost completely replaced by computer disks.
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Pellon - Pellon is a brand name. However it is commonly used to refer to woven and non-woven material used underneath the item or fabric being embroidered to provide support and stability. Can be hooped with the item, or placed between the machine throat plate and the hooped garment. Available in various weights and in two basic types: cutaway and tearaway. Also referred to as Stabilizer or Backing.
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Pitch - Degree of slope or angle of stitches in relation to a base line.
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Points - Unit of stitch density measurement. 10 points equal to 1 mm.
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Pressor Foot - L-shaped mechanical lever with a large opening in the base through which the needle must pass when sewing. For each stitch penetration, the presser foot comes down and pushes the fabric flat against the machine table, holding it steady for the needle to penetrate. After the needle raises back up, the presser foot rises as well, allowing the pantograph to move the garment to the next stitch point.
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Puckering - Result of the fabric being gathered by the stitches. Many possible causes include loose hooping, lack of backing, incorrect tension, or dull needle.
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Pull Compensation - A software function that changes the width of the stitches to compensate for the "give" of a fabric. Adjusting the pull-compensation setting is useful if you are sewing on knit fabrics because these fabrics tend to stretch. Suppose that you have punched a design with a Satin border. You sew the sample and realize that there is a gap between the Satin border and Fill stitches. To solve this problem, you increase the pull-compensation. (Similar to Column Width Adjustment.)
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Punching - Conversion of artwork into a series of commands to be read by an embroidery machine's computer. Derived from an early method of machine embroidery where paper tapes or jacquards punched with holes representing stitches. Punching technically refers to the method described above, whereas Digitizing technically refers to the modern methods of scanning images and then converting them into sewable designs using computer software. However, the terms often are used interchangeably.
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Push-Pull Compensation - Digitizing technique which takes into account the distortion of the design that will occur because of the interaction of the thread with the fabric. "Push and pull" will cause a circle digitized perfectly round to sew out with the sides pulled in, resulting in an egg shape. Generally, it is necessary to extend horizontal elements and reduce vertical elements.
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R

Recessed Hooping - This technique is also known as "Lip Hooping". It is useful when hooping bulky or slick fabrics, such as insulated jackets. The inner ring is pushed past the edge of the outer ring, so that the outer ring sticks up higher, forming a lip. This helps prevent the inner ring from being pushed up during the embroidery process, and places the goods flatter to the machine table.
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Registration - Correct registration is achieved when all stitches and design elements line up correctly.
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Running Stitch - Consists of one stitch between two points. Used for outlining and fine detail. Also known as walk stitch. There are various forms of running stitches, including the bean, the half bean, two-ply and programmed.
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S

Satin Stitch - Formed by closely arranged zig-zag stitches. Can be laid down at an angle with varying stitch length. Adapted from the blatt stitch used in schiffli embroidery. See Blatt Stitch. Also known as a column stitch.
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Scaling - Ability to enlarge or reduce a design. In expanded format, scaling should be limited 10 to 20 percent because of the fact that the stitch count will remain constant. In outline or condensed format, scale changes may be more dramatic as stitch count and density may be varied, but unlimited resizing is not practical and should be limited to 10 to 30 percent.
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Schiffli - Type of machine used to embroider yardgoods, such as intricate laces, emblems and appliques. Developed in Switzerland in the 1800s, schiffli means "small boat", which refers to the boat-shaped shuttle used with the machine. Some schiffli machines weigh 10 tons and have hundreds of needles. The goods are spanned vertically, as a wall, rather than on a flat table as in multi-heads.
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Sewability - The determination of whether a thread, fabric, backing, etc. can perform under normal embroidery stitching
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Short Stitch - A digitizing technique wherein you place short stitches within the outside perimeter of a curve or 45' angle to balance outside and inside density in a satin stitch, to avoid unnecessary bulky build-up of stitches.
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Solvy - Solvy is a brand name for water soluble material manufactured by Gunold & Stickma, which is hooped or placed on top of items to be embroidered that have a definable nap or surface texture, such as corduroy and terry cloth. The facing compacts the wale or nap and holds the stitches above it. Includes a variety of substances such as water soluble plastic "foil", and open weave fabric which is chemically treated to disintegrate with the application of heat. Also referred to as Facing or Topping.
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SPI - Stitches per inch. The imperial measurement for density of stitches.
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SPM - Stitches per minute. System used to measure the running speed of an embroidery machine.
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Stabilizer - Woven and non-woven material used underneath the item or fabric being embroidered to provide support and stability. Can be hooped with the item, or placed between the machine throat plate and the hooped garment. Available in various weights and in two basic types: cutaway and tearaway. Also referred to as Backing. May be referred to as Pellon, which is actually a brand name.
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Steil Stitch - A type of satin stitch. Formed by closely arranged zig-zag stitches. The Steil stitch differs from the Satin stitch by how it is created during the digitizing process. With a satin segment, the width of the segment can vary, with a steil the width is fixed. The satin is created by defining the opposing parallel sides of the segment. The steil is created by defining the center line of the segement and designating a specific segment width. When a design is resized, satin segments automatically resize in proportion to the design, whereas steil segments retain the specific width setting which was designated during the digitizing process.
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Stitch Editing - Digitizing feature that allows one or more stitches in a pattern to be deleted, lengthened or altered. This applies only to stitch or expanded files such as .dst and .psf.
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Stitch Gap - The area(s) of a design without stitching, where stitching should have occurred.
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Stitch To Outline Conversion - Software feature that allows you to convert a stitch file to an outline file or any parts of a stitch file to an outline file format. Also known as STO.
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Stitches Per Minute - Stitches per minute (SPM). System used to measure the running speed of an embroidery machine.
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STO - Stitch To Outline Conversion - Software feature that allows you to convert a stitch file to an outline file or any parts of a stitch file to an outline file format.
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Stock Designs - Digitized generic embroidery designs that are readily available at a cost below that of custom digitized designs.
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Swiss Embroidery - (1) Satin stitch embroidery; (2) Also recalls the origin of automated embroidery in Switzerland where the schiffli embroidery machine was developed in the 1800s by lsaak Groobli. Embroidery remains a government-supported industry in Switzerland today.
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T

Tacking Iron - Device used to fuse heat-sealable items, such as appliques, emblems and lettering, to fabric. Also known as an Applique Iron.
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Tackle Twill - Letters or numbers, cut from polyester or rayon twill fabric, commonly used for athletic teams and organizations. They have an adhesive backing to tack them in place while the edges are sewn with zig-zag stitches to attach them to a garment.
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Tatami - Another term used to describe fill stitches. (See Fill Stitch).
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Tension - Tautness of thread when forming stitches. Top thread as well as bobbin tension need to be set. Proper thread tension is achieved when about one-third of the thread showing on the underside of the fabric on a column stitch is bobbin thread. (See also FOX Test, I Test, Thirds Test.)
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Thirds Test - Method of testing thread tension and soundness of timing. Sew the word FOX in 1 inch satin block letters with each needle, then examine the reverse side for skipped stitches and correctly balanced ratio of top thread to bobbin thread. The correct balance is generally considered to be a one-third ratio of bobbin to two-thirds top thread. These letters are used because they require the movement of the pantograph in all directions, increasing the likelihood that the beginnings of timing irregularities will be discovered. Also referred to as the FOX Test. NOTE: The same test methodology can be performed using different combinations of letters besides FOX. Another common version is the "I" Test which utilizes only the letter I.
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Thread - Fine cord of natural or synthetic material made from two or more filaments twisted together and used in stitching. Machine embroidery threads come in rayon, which has a light sheen; cotton, which has a duller sheen than rayon, but is available in very fine deniers; polyester, which is strong and colorfast; and metallics, which have a high luster and are composed of a synthetic core wrapped in metal foil.
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Timing - Relationship between the embroidery machine's hook and needle. To form a stitch, the hook and the loop formed by the top thread must meet at a precise moment or else improper stitch formations, thread breakage, skipped stitches, or broken needles could result.
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Topping - Material hooped or placed on top of items to be embroidered that have a definable nap or surface texture, such as corduroy and terry cloth. The facing compacts the wale or nap and holds the stitches above it. Includes a variety of substances such as water soluble plastic "foil", and open weave fabric which is chemically treated to disintegrate with the application of heat. Also referred to as Facing. May be referred to as Solvy which is a brand name for water soluble material manufactured by Gunold & Stickma.
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Trademark - Any word, symbol or device used to distinguish goods and indicate the source of those goods. A trademark registered and visible on the product protects the owner from others producing something similar and fraudulently marketing it as the original.
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Trapunto - This embroidery technique uses a minimum number of stitches and relies on the positive and negative space in a design to give it a classy, upscale look. Your goal is to stitch the negative areas so that they lay flat, allowing the positive areas of the designs to puff up to produce a quilted effect. Not only does this give you a very unique design, but it helps reduce stitch counts as well. It’s often an excellent technique to use when stitching large fronts and jacket back designs. When working with trapunto, choose simple designs with large, open areas. Thin lines and details get lost with this technique. As for digitizing, you want to place stitches in the background of the negative areas and outline the positive areas. This will push the positive areas into the foreground. Also, keep in mind that the most eye-catching designs are done in monochromatic color schemes. Thick fabrics tend to lend themselves better to trapunto; however, you can use other methods to obtain a puffier appearance. One way is to place some batting between the fabric and a layer of cutaway backing. While the stitches will cause the batting to flatten out, the lack of stitches in the positive areas will enable the batting to produce a fluffier look. A more traditional way of producing the same results is to use a trapunto gun, a device that uses compressed air to shoot special yarn into the area between the back of the fabric and the backing. If you use either of these methods, be sure to use cutaway backing to ensure that the material stays in place. Tearaway backing will not hold up.
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Trimming - 1)Operation in the finishing process that involves trimming the reverse and face sides of the embroidery, including stitches and backing. (2) Machine process in which the automatic trimmers activate and trim both the upper and lower threads. (See Automatic Trimmers)
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Tubular Machine - See Cylinder Arm Machine.
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U

Underlay Stitch - A stitch laid down before other design elements to help stabilize stretchy fabrics and tack down wales or naps on fabrics such as corduroy, so the design's details don't get lost. May also be used to create such effects as crowned, flat, raised areas in the embroidery, depending on how they are laid down.
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Uploading - The transfer of designs/data from a machine to a computer or network. The transfer of designs/data from a computer to the internet.
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V

Variable Sizing - See Scaling.
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Vector Images - Vector images are images created by programs such as Adobe Illustrator (*.ai), CorelDRAW (*.cdr, *.cmx), and AutoCAD (*.dxf). Vector images are also referred to as line art or object-based graphics. Vector images are defined by mathematical equations and, as a result, can be scaled to any size while retaining their crisp outlines and details.
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Verify - Sample sew-out of a new embroidery design to make sure the pattern is correct.
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Z

Zig Zag Stitch - A true zig-zag stitch is generated by a zig-zag sewing machine and is created by moving the needle left to right or in the X direction while the pantograph moves the fabric and creates the design. Modern commercial embroidery machines are straight stitch machines, meaning the needle only moves straight up and down, not left or right. A satin stitch is created by moving the pantograph back and forth while sewing, and a zig-zag stitch is created by sewing a satin stitch with a very low density that looks like a Z.
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